Glossary

ASBESTOS
A large number of countries have introduced legislation concerned with the use of asbestos due to the considerable risks associated with handling or processing the material. Handling asbestos in a responsible manner demands a high degree of expertise. Alex Stewart has that expertise, incorporated in a quality assurance system approved by the Council for Accreditation.

ATOMIC ABSORPTION
ASA has Atomic Absorption Units that are particularly useful for measuring low levels of elements in all metallurgical materials.

BILLS OF LADING
The bill of lading acts as a receipt for the goods taken on board the vessel and provides information as to the nature, quantity and description of those goods. It is evidence of a contract of carriage between the shipper and the carrier wherein the carrier has agreed to transport the goods by sea from one place to another. It gives title to the goods and means that it can be given to the carrier in exchange for possession of the goods. Bills of Lading are normally issued in duplicate or triplicate. Traditionally, one original is issued to the shipper, a second kept by the Master and the third retained by the ship owner. However, it has become customary for all originals to be handed to the shipper in order to reduce the risk of one of the originals falling into the wrong hands, as previously advised an original B/L gives title to the goods. Once an original B/L has been surrendered and the goods have been obtained, any remaining B/Ls become void and useless. 

BUNKER SURVEY
Any survey to establish the quantity, and in some instances the quality of the oil, fuel and fresh water remaining on board a vessel.

CALIBRATION OF WEIGHING EQUIPMENT
The standard of static weighing facilities can vary considerably depending on such factors as the location, maintenance level and general condition of the facility. This survey will ensure that a detailed report is produced to reflect conditions at the time of usage and that every precaution had been taken to produce an accurate weight. ASA insist that recognized test weights be utilized and that documentation verifying the last official calibration of the facility be made available for inspection.

CHARTER PARTY
This is the agreement between the owner of a vessel and the party who chartered it either for a specific period of time 'time charter' or to perform a series of voyages 'voyage charter'. In a time charter the ship owner pays all the shipping costs such as the crew, provisions and bunkering (fuel and water) but the port and cargo handling charges are a matter of negotiation. The charterer pays for the carriage of the goods; 'freight' which is generally based on the quantity of goods shipped on a tonnage rate per ton or a lump sum can be pre-agreed. If the charterer loads less than the minimum quantity contemplated in the agreement he will be liable for a 'dead freight', a sum calculated on the shortage of quantity loaded to compensate the ship-owners for sailing part empty."

CIF (COST, INSURANCE, FREIGHT)
A CIF contract is one in which the seller agrees to sell goods to his buyer at a price which includes not only the price of the goods, but also the cost of insuring and transporting those goods from origin to destination. Once the goods are aboard the vessel and the seller has tendered appropriate shipping documentation (Bill of Lading, Policy of Insurance & commercial invoice) he has fulfilled his part of the contract and is entitled to payment from the buyer. The seller has no responsibility for the goods even if they are lost or damaged during the voyage. However the buyer can claim against the carrier or against the cargo insurers. Once shipped, the seller is generally under obligation to 'appropriate' the goods to the contract (give notice to the buyer that the goods are on a specific vessel)."

CONDITION SURVEY
This survey will ensure that the vessel, barge or container that you intend to use fulfils its technical and maritime requirements.

DRAFT SURVEYING/BARGE GAUGING
One of the most well established methods of calculating the weight of cargo. ASA has many years experience and a wide range of technical resources to draw upon to ensure that clients receive a precise, high quality service. Similarly, our Barge Gauging Services determine the quantity of cargo loaded or discharged from river barges. These surveys can be carried out for either dry bulk or liquid cargoes.

FOB (FREE ON BOARD)
The seller's price in a standard FOB contract consists of the cost the goods and the expense of placing those goods on board a vessel that is nominated by the buyer. When a cargo is sold on an FOB basis the buyer nominates the inspection company. Therefore to ensure that the seller's goods are placed on board the buyer's vessel at the right place and right time requires co-operation between the two parties. The buyer is obliged to inform the seller of his nominated vessel usually ten days before arrival at the port.

FOSFA
Federation and oils, seeds and fats associations. Alex Stewart and A. Norman Tate are superintendent and analyst members. A. Norman Tate is a founder member of FOSFA.

GAFTA
Grain and Feed Trade Association. UK regulating institution for the Grain and Feed Trade. Alex Stewart and Huson and Hardwick Laboratories are GAFTA Superintendent and Analysts.

GAS FREE SURVEY
Vessels and other means of transport of liquid cargoes, especially of oil derivatives have to possess a Gas Free Certificate, according to the latest International regulations IMCO CODE. Our reliable inspection will allow you to obtain this certificate and apply it with full confidence. 

 Granulometry is more simply explained when described as particle sizing. Granulometry testing is determined by placing samples through standardized metal sieves. The sizes can vary greatly in size and have either square or round holes. They are normally used to determine whether a product is within a given size specification, however they can also be used in agricultural products to investigate infestation.

GRAVITY TESTS
Laboratory scale testing used to separate heavy from light fractions using specific equipment such as the Knelson concentrator.

GROSS SAMPLE
Also known as the bulk sample. A composite of all increment samples or all sub samples.

HATCH HOSE TESTING
Hatch hose testing is used to establish whether ship's hatch seals and covers are watertight. The ship's own, or a shore-side hose, is used to vigorously spray all areas of the hatch cover joints and hold seal areas. The process is usually carried out for a period of half an hour after which time the hatch covers are opened and the empty holds are inspected for water ingress. In this way the surveyor can then accept or reject the vessel for loading.

HAGBERG FALLING NUMBER
There are two main quality characteristics of wheat, both primarily applying to flour usage. Gluten and alpha amylase activity. The former is tested by a variety of measures and the latter measured by the Hagberg test. Hagberg falling number (HFN) is an indicator of the alpha-amylase activity in the flour. A high HFN means a low alpha-amylase activity, and means that the flour is less degraded by the enzyme. It is measured by heating the flour in water and measuring the rate of fall of a plunger. The usual commercial minimum for breadmaking is 250 for Hagberg falling number. For bread strong extensible gluten is required so that loaves rise a lot without big holes but for biscuit wheats a weak gluten is needed. Low apha amylase activity is required for both as alpha amylase turns starch to sugar preventing proper dough characteristics.

HOLD CLEANLINESS INSPECTION
This inspection is performed to determine whether the holds are clean, dry and free of previously shipped cargo. Each hold should be individually inspected, accepted or rejected by the attending surveyor. The holds should be free of odor, without paint peeling or heavy rust that could flake into the cargo designated for loading. All accessible areas of the hold and hatch covers should be thoroughly examined, as previously shipped commodity could remain in hard to reach areas. The hatch covers should be opened and closed at least twice in the presence of the attending surveyor in order to establish whether previously shipped cargo is hidden under the exposed hatch cover areas. 

HOLD CONDITION SURVEY
Thorough inspection of the cargo compartment and the hatch covers to determine its suitability for the carriage of the proposed cargo and that the specified requirements of the customer for cleanliness are met. Inspection of the compartment for any damage in order to prevent harm to the cargo and to prevent claims against the customer for damage that is not attributable to him. 

HOLD SEALING
Sealing of the hatch covers with tape or sealing foam/compound as an additional precaution against water ingress.

HULL AND ENGINE SURVEY
If a vessel you have been using suffers hull or engine damage, ASA can perform an inspection and provide a certificate that will outline the full extent of the damage caused. Any survey of the hull could include, engine, decks, pipes, bilges, hatches, ventilators, gangways, tanks, lighting and other fittings and structures within the vessel.

ICP EMISSION
The ICP Emission Spectrometer is used to analyze a wide range of  metals for low detection trace level to sub PPM  percentages, using a modern CID detector capable of simultaneous multi-elemental detection with a high degree of precision.

INCREMENT
This is the material taken by a single motion of any sampling device. This could involve the use of a shovel, sounding pipe, spear or automatic system.

LOSS CONTROL
A competent surveyor is employed by his principal for many reasons, one fundamental part of his remit is to assess any prevailing damage to goods and to minimize loss / maximize profitability. The surveyor will co-ordinate with stevedores or warehouse personnel in order to segregate damaged goods and to salvage as much of the commodity as possible.

MARINE CARGO SURVEYING
Goods and financial interests in maritime transport are subject to damages and losses for many reasons. Our experts can protect your interests as they secure your rights to compensation for damages to goods, or if your financial interests are threatened.

MATES RECEIPT
A Mate's Receipt, as the name suggests, is a receipt made out normally by the First Officer of a ship, stating the quantity, description and condition of goods received on board. It is normally issued in the name of and given to the shipper of the goods. Mate's Receipts are intended to be only temporary documents because, once loading is completed, they are exchanged for Bill of Lading issued.

MOISTURE DETERMINATION
This survey will give guidance prior to shipment of the general condition of the material. If required a sample can be drawn to produce an approximate analysis. This type of survey is often essential in new markets.

ON HIRE OFF HIRE SURVEY
To ascertain the quantities of Fuel Oil, remaining on board of a vessel at time of her delivery to Time Charters or her return to owners and if required, to survey the condition of her cargo compartments, with regard to existing and/or claimed damages.

PIGGING
At any bulking installation loading, unloading and other pumping lines are used interchangeably for different types of oils or different products of the same oil. The oil left behind in any pipeline after the pumping operation could be as much as 5-10 tons, depending upon the length and diameter of pipeline. In order to recover the oil fully and to avoid contamination with other oils, the cleaning operation of the internal surface of the pipeline known as 'pigging' is carried out. This is achieved by blowing 'pigs' through the pipeline system by compressed air or nitrogen. 'Pigs' can be hard or soft. A hard pig consists of several, usually three, discs of plastic on a central shaft. Soft pigs consist of cylindrical plugs of foamed plastic. The pigs are a close fit in the pipeline to be cleaned."

PREPARED SAMPLE
The final analysis sample prepared by appropriate means such as drying, mixing, reducing, crushing, grinding etc. and then properly apportioned for sealin
g.

PRE-SHIPMENT INSPECTION
Pre-shipment inspection provides physical and visual inspection of goods prior or post shipment to establish the correct value of imported or exported goods.

QUALITY CONTROL - DAMAGED CARGO INVESTIGATION
This operation is carried out, depending on the commodity involved, in factory or at shipside in the sampling preparation room or in a laboratory. ASA has 23 laboratories that help determine analytical results. Damage survey can cover every aspect of the contractual qualitative specifications and condition of the goods.

RADIATION CERTIFICATE
We will monitor the loading or discharging of your cargo in order to confirm that no radiation has been detected in the material and issue the appropriate certificate.

SEALING
Security sealing of containers, drums, bags or even cargo holds with ASA seals.

SHIPMENT PERIOD
All contracts state a shipment period during which time the goods should commence loading onto the nominated vessel. The question of whose responsibility it is to nominate the vessel (seller or buyer) depends on the contract. If the obligated party fails to commence loading within the shipment period they are in breach of the contract and the other party is entitled to damages.

SICK BUILDING SYNDROME
Employees often complain about their working atmosphere causing "Sick Building Syndrome". ASES has the expertise to map out the interior climate of buildings and formulate advice to optimize the interior climate and ensure that employees work in a healthy environment. 

SOIL CLEAN UP
Polluted soil can form a risk to the health of the user, to those living in the area and to the environment, however the risks that are connected with it are often underestimated. It is therefore always of the greatest importance to accurately determine the cleanup urgency for the relevant soil before actually starting the cleanup process. 

SOIL SURVEY
With the increasing demand for land in urban areas, old industrial land is often used for new commercial development. ASES can carry out various tests to determine the quality of the land (soil and ground water) and as a result, potential health risks, material and financial loss can be significantly minimized. ASES has the qualified personnel, a fully equipped drilling vehicle, efficient sampling and computer programs which make it possible to report results quickly. Every report drawn up for a soil study is tested against the applicable legal standards and our report will include a risk evaluation prognosis of soil pollution spread, together with a detailed plan of approach.

STABILITY CALCULATION SURVEY
If the stability of a vessel is endangered, the Ship's master can stop the loading of a cargo. The Stability Calculation Survey can determine whether such actions are justified and if not, an ASA certificate can be used as you try to arrange compensation. 

STOCKPILE INSPECTION
Accurate measurements of all kinds of stockpiles are undertaken utilizing advance technology and traditional sampling techniques.

TALLYING
A tally is often commonly described as a 'piece count'. A commodity can be tallied in package form for example, a tally of bundles or a tally of bagged fertilizer. A tally is often carried out when there are no facilities to weigh a commodity at a warehouse or port.

TANK CLEANLINESS INSPECTION
Tanks designated for receiving liquids need to be checked for their suitability to receive the nominated cargo. Particular attention should be made to the tank coating in relation to the product to be loaded, as some tank coating can contaminate particular cargoes. The tank should be free of odor, clean and dry. If the product to be loaded requires heating, the surveyor should examine the coil heating system in order to ensure it is tight with no leakage
.

TANKS AND LIQUIDS CARGO SURVEY
After you have agreed to transport a cargo of liquids or fats, our thorough inspection will allow you to decline any claims made against you with regard to the method of storing your cargo. 

TEMPERATURE DETERMINATION
Temperature determination is normally carried out by means of a probe connected to a digital read -out. It is often critical to establish the temperature of a cargo in order to maintain safety. Some cargoes such as steel scrap turnings can spontaneously combust if the product is not allowed to cool sufficiently prior to loading aboard a vessel. 

TITRATION
Modern high-precision Titrators are used, particularly for fast and accurate determination of Silver in Dore and Fluorine in a range of materials.

ULLAGING
This term is commonly applied during bulk shipment and storage of oils and other liquids. Ullage may be defined as: Ullage = Total depth of tank – depth of tank filled by oil or any other liquid
.

WAREHOUSING
Specializing in the storage of commodities where local management, experience and security ensure a safe and professional service.

WATER INGRESS
TA surveyor should investigate the presence of water ingress that may be prevalent in the hold of a ship. The source of the water ingress should be thoroughly investigated and can occur through the hatch covers, either down the hatch walls or through the hatch sealing joints. Water ingress can also occur through the vessel's bilges or even if a tank top is punctured. A simple silver nitrate test can be performed to establish whether the water ingress is fresh or seawater.

WEIGHING AND SAMPLING
For commercial settlement purposes two factors have to be considered an accurate weight in conjunction with an accurate analytical result. It is essential that samples are drawn from the commodity in accordance with internationally accepted standards and ASA surveyors are fully conversant with these requirements and procedures.

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE
The X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer is used to scan any unknown material and determine its main constituents.

1 2 3 4